Today’s busy lifestyle demands that people make use of technology that will enable them to maximize time. It is for this reason that the robotic lawn mowers have been sought after and easily accepted as a household “must-have”. Another reason by which robotic grass cutter has become a necessity in today’s life is to ensure operator safety .There may be stones, stick, wire, bones, toys, and other thrown objects that can cause personal injury. These situations force us to depend on these kinds of technologies.The Green mower is designed to provide a helping hand for the gardener. Here keys are provided to give the appropriate instruction for the motion of the vehicle. These are done by encoding the data given by the user and transmitted to the reception part. Here it is decoded and given to the motor driver for controlling the respective motors (right / left motor). The Grass cutting is implemented by a cutting motor and string. So cutting can be done by switching on the power of cutting motor and directing the vehicle by the remote. Robotic green mowers are environment-friendly. Automatic green mowers are designed to cut the grass in sizes which make it desirable as mulching material for your lawn. Upon decomposition, the cut grasses are returned to the soil and become a viable source of fertilizer for your lawn. Robotic green mowers run on electricity. With the practical sources of energy, robot green mowers help reduce global warming since it does not use gas or oil and it does not result in the emission of gases. Remote controlled green mowers make the reach-ability to remote areas possible.
Remote controlled green mower is designed in a way that it has two sections. One section comprises the vehicle and the other a cutting part. With the provided remote control we can move the vehicle in different directions. Whenever the cutting action is to be performed, switch on the power of the cutting motor. Remote control operates at radio frequencies. Instructions are given through the switches on the remote control and transmitted to the vehicle. Signal received at the receiver of the vehicle is decoded if it matches with the encoding done at the transmitter section. Decoded data are given to the motor drive which has the capability of controlling two motors independently. Motor driver controls the direction of rotatory motion of the motor. It can be either in the clockwise or anti clockwise direction.
Forward motion is carried out by the clockwise rotation of both left and right motor. Likewise the reverse motion is done by the anti clockwise rotation of both left and right motors. Left motion occurs by the clockwise rotation of left motor only. Right motion occurs by the clockwise rotation of right motor only.
system over view:
Bock diagram over view of transmitter unit
sudo: Executing Commands with Root Privileges
Most of the following commands will need to be prefaced with the sudo command. which is necessary when working with directories or files not owned by your user account. When using sudo you will be prompted for your password. Only users with sudo (administrative) privileges will be able to use this command.
Useful File and Directory Commands
- The tilde (~) symbol indicates it is your home directory. If you are user, then the tilde (~) stands for /home/user
- pwd: The pwd command will allow you to know in which directory you’re located (pwd stands for “print working directory”). Example: “pwd” in the Desktop directory will show “~/Desktop”.
- ls: The ls command used for showing the files in your current directory.
- cd: The cd command will allow you to change directories. When you open a terminal you will be in your home directory. To move around the file system you will use cd. Examples:
- To navigate into the root directory, use “cd /”
- To navigate to your home directory, use “cd” or “cd ~”
- To navigate up one directory level, use “cd ..”
- To navigate to the previous directory (or back), use “cd -“
- To navigate through multiple levels of directory at once, specify the full directory path that you want to go to. For example, use, “cd /var/www” to go directly to the /www subdirectory of /var/. As another example, “cd ~/Desktop” will move you to the Desktop subdirectory inside your home directory.
- cp: The cp command will make a copy of a file for you. Example: “cp jaseem job” will make an exact copy of “jaseem” and name it “job”, but the file “jaseem” will still be there. If you are copying a directory, you must use “cp -r directory jasmedia” (copy recursively). (To understand what “recursively” means, think of it this way: to copy the directory and all its files and subdirectories and all their files and subdirectories of the subdirectories and all their files, and on and on, “recursively”)
- mv: The mv command will move a file to a different location or will rename a file. Examples are as follows: “mv jaseem jasmedia” will rename the file “jaseem” to “jasmedia”. “mv jaseem ~/Desktop”will move the file “jaseem” to your Desktop directory but will not rename it. You must specify a new file name to rename a file.
- To save on typing, you can substitute ‘~’ in place of the home directory.
- Note that if you are using mv with sudo you can use the ~ shortcut, because the terminal expands the ~ to your home directory. However, when you open a root shell with sudo -i or sudo -s, ~ will refer to the root account’s home directory, not your own.
- rm: Use this command to remove or delete a file in your directory.
- rmdir: The rmdir command will delete an empty directory. To delete a directory and all of its contents recursively, use rm -r instead.
- mkdir: The mkdir command will allow you to create directories. Example: “mkdir Document” will create a directory called “music”.
- man: The man command is used to show you the manual of other commands. Try “man man” to get the man page for man itself.
Running a File Within a Directory
So you’ve decided to run a file using the command-line? Well… there’s a command for that too!
After navigating to the file’s parent directory, this command will enable any Ubuntu user to parse files compiled via gcc or any other programming language. Keep in mind that the ‘extension’ will vary depending upon the language the source code is written in. For example: “.c” for C source, “.cpp” for C++, “.rb” for Ruby, “.py” for python, etc. Also, remember that (in the case of interpreted languages like Ruby & Python) you must have a version of that language installed on Ubuntu before trying to run files written with it.
System Information Commands
- df: displays filesystem disk space usage for all mounted partitions. “df -h” is probably the most useful – it uses megabytes (M) and gigabytes (G) instead of blocks to report. (-h means “human-readable”)
- du: The du command displays the disk usage for a directory. It can either display the space used for all subdirectories or the total for the directory you run it on. Example:
user@users-desktop:~$ du /media/cd
user@users-desktop:~$ du -sh /media/cd
where -s means “Summary” and -h means “Human Readable”
- free: The free command displays the amount of free and used memory in the system. “free -m” will give the information using megabytes, which is probably most useful for current computers.
- top: The top command displays information on your Linux system, running processes and system resources, including CPU, RAM & swap usage and total number of tasks being run. To exit top, press “q”.
- uname -a: The uname command with the -a option prints all system information, including machine name, kernel name & version, and a few other details. Most useful for checking which kernel you’re using.
- lsb_release -a: The lsb_release command with the -a option prints version information for the Linux release you’re running
- ip addr reports on your system’s network interfaces.
Adding A New User
“adduser newuser” command will create a new general user called “newuser” on your system, and to assign a password for the newuser account use “passwd newuser”.
The default behaviour for a command may usually be modified by adding a —option to the command. The ls command for example has an -s option so that “ls -s” will include file sizes in the listing. There is also a -h option to get those sizes in a “human readable” format.
Options can be grouped in clusters so “ls -sh” is exactly the same command as “ls -s -h”. Most options have a long version, prefixed with two dashes instead of one, so even “ls –size –human-readable” is the same command
I hope it is helpful for Ubuntu Biginners…..!
The Blue Brain Project is an attempt to create a synthetic brain
by reverse-engineering the mammalian brain down to the molecular
level. The aim of the project, founded in May 2005 by the Brain and
Mind Institute of the École Polytechnique in Lausanne, Switzerland, is
to study the brain’s architectural and functional principles. The project is
headed by the Institute’s director, Henry Markram. Using a Blue Gene
supercomputer running Michael Hines’s NEURON software, the
simulation does not consist simply of an artificial neural network, but
involves a biologically realistic model of neurons. It is hoped that it will
eventually shed light on the nature of consciousness. There are a number
of sub-projects, including the Cajal Blue Brain, coordinated by the
Supercomputing and Visualization Center of Madrid (CeSViMa), and
others run by universities and independent laboratories in the UK, US,
For presentation slide Click Here… latest blue
Livestation is the largest platform for live news in the world . There is something special about watching a story live as it unfolds. Livestation has partnered with news channels from around the world to give you access to quality live news coverage – on any device, be it on your computer, mobile phone or TV.
Fantastic features… of Livestation:
Discovery: Content and language filters now make it much easier to browse and discover new channels
Quality: The stream quality has been doubled (premium channels are now near DVD-quality)
Social: You can now share a live stream on Facebook, track what your friends are watching and share a screenshot on Twitter
Free to watch: number of channels can be watched for free on the Livestation website or on their desktop player, a freely downloadable video application that presents all the channels through one interface.
Developed the Livestation Desktop Player to be able to offer you enhanced features while you watch. Use Twitter and Twitpic integration to let people know what you think of the news, or just keep it in the corner of your screen while you work.
Download Livestation for Linux Click Here !!
It is also available to Windows and Mac platforms
What happens next? Read the rest of this entry »
Ubuntu 11.10 brings a lot of changes in Unity featuring . These new features have a lot more customisation in Unity than many think possible.
And after a bit of tweaking I made my Unity desktop look like above figure.
- Unity Launcher placed at the bottom
- Dark arrows for the launcher
- The lack of backlit for the icons in the launcher
- New icon for the Ubuntu button
- New icons in the the Dash main window
If you want to know how to make your Unity look like above.Do the instructions below: Read the rest of this entry »
change your login background with ‘Simple LightDM Manager’.
The default login background image matches the default Ubuntu wallpaper.then you can change login background (the size of image cannot exceed 500KB)
This is easy to do by installing ‘Simple LightDM Manager’ – a small app that lets you choose and set a different image as the login window background.
LightDM can be downloaded in .Deb format. Once the package has downloaded just double click on it to begin installation.
Once installed, Simple LightDM Manager can be launched from applications